Whirl up, sea —
whirl your pointed pines,
splash your great pines on our rocks,
hurl your green over us,
cover us with your pools of fir.
(Oread, by H. D.)
Carbon is the element of life, common to all known life-forms. Its unique and astonishing properties make life possible. With four electrons available for covalent bonding, carbon forms a unique diversity of complex organic compounds, with more than ten million described to date; and yet that figure is only a tiny fraction of those theoretically possible. Carbon has an unusual ability to form polymers — macromolecules with repeating sequences, such as DNA — at temperatures experienced on earth. Carbon’s physical properties vary widely according to the allotropic form it takes, forms as distinct as graphene and diamond: soft and hard; opaque and transparent; conductive and insulating. Carbon will not ionise under any except implausibly extreme conditions. Its allotropes are thermally conductive, thermodynamically stable and chemically resistant. Taken together, these properties make it the foundation of all life.
Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, and the second in the human body (after oxygen). Like all heavy elements it is forged in the furnaces of stars. But when the British scientist Fred Hoyle came to this element in his ground-breaking work on stellar nucleosynthesis, he found himself faced with a conundrum: carbon should not exist.
That is, it should be transformed instantaneously into oxygen on coming into existence. The only way it could persist would be for a very specific value to be assigned to the parameters of the carbon-12 isotope: i.e., a resonance level at 7.65 MeV (million electric volts) above its ground state.
Hoyle’s prediction of this value was confirmed experimentally, and for the scientist this resulted in a mind-blowing epiphany.
“I do not believe,” he wrote, “that any scientist who examined the evidence would fail to draw the inference that the laws of nuclear physics have been deliberately designed with regard to the consequences they produce inside the stars.”
(Religion and the Scientists, 1959.)
Carbon is the impossible element, and the miracle of life begins with physics.
Hoyle is one of a number of physicists throughout the 20th century who started to advance the teleological argument — that physical parameters governing the condition of the universe are fine-tuned to very specific values which enable not only the possibility of life, but of astronomical structures, diverse elements, chemical bonds, and even of matter itself.
For Hoyle, the very existence of carbon was proof of intelligent design in physics. In recent times, powerful arguments have emerged regarding intelligent design in biology. These are arguments not from faith but from science. Not least among them is Watson and Crick’s discovery of the quaternary code embedded in DNA, comparable to but vastly exceeding in complexity our own binary digital codes. This, in plain terms, is language; and according to all of our knowledge and experience, there is only one possible source for language — and that is, intelligent mind.
Where and how we imagine this mind is an individual philosophical challenge. Hoyle did not default to belief in an anthropomorphic God. Instead he adopted a position strikingly consonant with ancient philosophy in both its Eastern and Western branches, Buddhism and Stoicism — that the universe itself is intelligent. And that means it is alive, and conscious.
As the Stoic philosopher Chryssipus of Soli wrote, in his De Nature Deorum: “The universe itself is God.”
For the past several million years, the planet has effectively been in a CO2 drought. Plants grow best with atmospheric levels above 1000 parts per million. During the last glaciation, levels fell as low as 180 ppm, perilously close to the limit of 150 ppm below which plants, and therefore any life on the planet, cannot survive. The recent rise to around 400 ppm gives us a small cushion of safety.
As the planet begins to recover from its CO2 drought, with humans playing a vital role, we see a global increase in vegetation, a greening especially of arid areas, as clearly shown by satellite imagery. (Studies done by CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, reveal this trend, and their figures are confirmed by NASA.) Increased availability of CO2 transforms dry, semi-desert areas because it enables plants to use water more efficiently — higher CO2 confers drought resistance in plants, which can now absorb the gas using fewer stomatic apertures, thus losing less water to evaporation in the process. And of course it massively boosts growth, which is why growers pump the gas into greenhouses from special generators or engine exhausts. Levels of 800 – 1200 ppm lead to 40-60% increases in yield. In the open air, farmers know that while fertilisers and water can be increased, atmospheric CO2 is always the limiting factor on growth. In recent years the ‘CO2 fertilisation effect’ has brought huge gains to agricultural yields worth hundred of billions of dollars in profit.
And that, in a nutshell, is the greenhouse effect — the only important effect of higher atmospheric carbon. That statement will shock many who are in thrall to the anti-carbon propaganda, but it is what the historical climate reconstructions tell us, based on the reliable proxy of ice-cores. Over the last 650,000 years, of which we have a detailed record of both temperatures and atmospheric composition, there is some correlation observed between warm periods and higher carbon dioxide levels. But rises in temperature precede rising CO2 in the record, and it’s easy to understand why. Warm conditions are good for life; when it is warmer, there is more life, and life is carbon-based.
More significantly, the oceans emit CO2 as they warm. Cooling water absorbs, and warming waters exhale, the gas of life. So when the conditions exist, the planet provides. Oceans warm more slowly than landmass, and that is why there is a time lag of at least 800 hundred years between rising temperatures and rising CO2. It is important to note that the warming of the oceans is not a consequence of the warming of the atmosphere; the depths of the ocean can only be warmed by convection, not conduction. Ultimately, both atmosphere and ocean are warmed by the same source, solar irradiance. Currently, according to NASA, there is no warming of the deep ocean.
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas — that is, it helps the biosphere to retain heat. But it is by no means the most important one — water vapour composes around 70% of all greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and constitutes about 95% of the effect. CO2 plays a much smaller role, and its effect diminishes as more is added. Atmospheric temperature exhibits a logarithmic dependence on carbon dioxide levels — that is, if it takes an increase of 400 ppm to bring about a rise of one degree Celsius, it will take a further 800 ppm to raise temperatures by another degree; another 1600 ppm to add a further degree, 3200 ppm to add the next, and so on. This system of diminishing returns ensures that there can be no ‘tipping point’ in terms of atmospheric carbon; and no ‘runaway warming’ due to feedbacks is observed in the history of the earth, despite enormously higher levels of CO2 in the past.
Over the industrial period we have seen a net warming of less than one degree Celsius, which represents a remarkable degree of stability. We can not only live in a carbon rich atmosphere but would thrive, along with all other species. There is no such thing as an excess; higher atmospheric carbon, in fact, is the key to ending world hunger.
Deserts greening from rising CO2 (CSIRO)
But there are those among us who do not want to see that happen; who indeed would regard it as a catastrophe, undermining their power at the top of a hierarchical society dependent on artificial scarcity.
In 1991, the elite think-tank behind the United Nations’ environmental policy, the Club of Rome, published a report entitled ‘The First Global Revolution’, which contains this astonishing passage.
“The need for enemies seems to be a common historical factor. Some states have striven to overcome domestic failure and internal contradictions by blaming external enemies. The ploy of finding a scapegoat is as old as mankind itself – when things become too difficult at home, divert attention to adventure abroad. Bring the divided nation together to face an outside enemy, either a real one, or else one invented for the purpose.
In searching for a common enemy against whom we can unite, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like, would fit the bill. In their totality and their interactions these phenomena do constitute a common threat which must be confronted by everyone together. But in designating these dangers as the enemy, we fall into the trap, which we have already warned readers about, namely mistaking symptoms for causes. All these dangers are caused by human intervention in natural processes, and it is only through changed attitudes and behaviour that they can be overcome. The real enemy, then, is humanity itself.” (p 115)
Thus the global elite explicitly declared war on humanity and created a travesty of environmentalism as its weapon. Through selective governmental funding and led by the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the globalists began promoting heavily manipulated science to spread fear of an impending catastrophe triggered by the extraction of energy from hydrocarbons, whether by burning wood, coal, oil or methane gas. Through international treaties, taxes and cap-and-trade carbon exchanges, they seek to inhibit and ultimately reverse the addition of life-giving CO2 to the atmosphere.
The aim, explicit in the UN’s Agenda 21 and 30 policy documents, is to shut off humanity’s access to hydrocarbons, the source of 98% of the world’s energy at current technological levels, and crucial to Third World development. Carbon, the element of life, is identified as a pollutant, specifically in its atmospheric form, which sustains all life on this planet through photosynthesis, binding carbon into living forms.
This whipped-up hysteria, spread by a politicised, bureaucratised travesty of science, is founded on a reversal of causation. The early ice-core surveys seemed to reveal some degree of correlation between temperature and carbon dioxide, attracting the interest of the pioneering oceanographer Dr Roger Revelle, who posed the question in 1957: might our industrial generation of atmospheric carbon dioxide become problematic over time? After more than three decades studying the question, Revelle concluded in an article co-authored with Fred Singer and Chauncey Starr that the hypothesis remained unproven, and advised that it should not form the basis for drastic action.
The article (“What to do about greenhouse warming: Look before you leap”, 1992) was published posthumously, Revelle having died in 1991. The dismissive response of one of the professor’s former students, a certain Albert Arnold Gore, was to claim that Revelle had gone senile before his death. And this nasty, personal tone still characterises the debate about anthropogenic climate change three decades later.
In any case the political die was already cast; the Club of Rome’s declaration of war on humanity had already been issued. The IPCC, instituted in 1988 on a brief to look only at human causes of climate change, ignored such calls for caution and promoted the idea of a climate emergency too urgent to allow time for further debate: the so-called precautionary principle. It adopted fraudulent studies such as Dr Michael Mann’s ‘hockey-stick’ reconstruction of climate history as doctrine, and published its Summaries for Policymakers before its scientists had finished their reports, cherry-picking and even altering its own scientists’ conclusions. One of the best accounts of the corrupt behaviour of the IPCC’s bureaucrats is provided by Christopher Booker in his 2009 book, The Real Global Warming Disaster.
As further ice-core surveys provided more data points, it became clear that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels follow, not precede, rises and falls in temperature. The record frequently shows a complete decoupling of any relationship between carbon dioxide levels and temperature. Indeed, the planet has experienced six ice-ages when CO2 was at high levels. The idea that atmospheric carbon dioxide drives climate is a knowing inversion of the facts; it is war propaganda.
And it leads to tortured contradiction: if carbon dioxide, the root of all life, is a pollutant, then life itself is pollution.
That seems to me a mockery; a Satanic inversion.
Those who oppose the deception are castigated as ‘climate deniers’, amid periodical calls for their arrest and punishment. One of the most fanatical priests in this new inquisition is Dr Peter Carter, a medical doctor by training, and latterly an expert reviewer for the IPCC. Applauding the Pope’s 2015 encyclical letter calling climate change ‘a sin against God’, he condemns scientific dissent on climate change as ‘evil’, an ‘unprecedented crime’ of ‘extreme immorality’, and urges criminal prosecution of the heretics. And what punishment could be enough? In Carter’s inverted worldview, we have ‘no future’ if we don’t reduce our CO2 emissions to near zero. He believes it may already be too late, and fears we may already be committed to an ‘uninhabitable planet’.
Indeed, in his view, reducing emissions is not enough: we must actively remove existing CO2 from the atmosphere. The gas of life must be ‘sequestered’ — that is, hidden away underground, where it can do no harm. When you understand that trees and plants themselves sequester carbon, this appears a biizarre idea. If you want to take carbon out of the atmosphere, just plant trees; the higher carbon in the atmosphere will power their growth. They call this ‘biological sequestration’ — as if the purpose of plant-life is to save us from CO2. But Earth needs its forests, just as much as it needs its seas. It needs great oceans of forest. Oceans and forests are the twinned lungs of the planet. Forests and food are what the carbon dioxide is for.
But biological sequestration is not good enough for Carter and the priesthood, because trees drop their leaves, and die and rot, and their wood is burnt for fuel and in forest fires, and so the carbon is released back into the cycle. So then we must use the trees to pull the carbon from the atmosphere and burn them in ovens, capturing the CO2 and burying it in great underground reservoirs — so-called ‘geological sequestration’.
In terms of geological time spans, atmospheric carbon is almost as low as it has ever been. When plants evolved, it was at least ten times higher — all that carbon waiting to be bonded into the great oceanic forests. With the planet only beginning to emerge from its CO2 famine, the geological sequestration of carbon is so absurd a plan that it seems to me insanity, or Satanity — a Satanic joke.
Next, the priests of the church of Satanic inversion tell us that to propitiate the gods of climate we must dim the sun itself. How? With artificial clouds, a screen of cirrus nucleated by particles ‘injected’ into the stratosphere. Solar Radiation Management, they call it, euphemistically. Not sunlight, not sunshine… solar radiation. And not dimming, but ‘management’.
They’ve been talking about it for a long time: from Edward Teller in the 1950s to David Keith of Harvard in the 2010s. But the strange thing is that while they’ve talked about it, the sun-screen has gone up all by itself. An artificial albedo of reflective particles has magically constructed itself in the sky, whitening the blue, and diminishing the amount of sunlight reaching the surface by 15 – 20%, compared to fifty years ago.
Some, perhaps most, of this atmospheric sunscreen comes from JP8 jet fuel, which was introduced across the board in both civil and military aviation during the 1990s. By 1997 the transition was complete — and interestingly, the first observations of ‘chemtrails’ date from 1997-98. JP8 is a dirty fuel, and the persistent contrails it generates are described accurately enough by the popular term ‘chemtrails’. With this fuel, a contrail is a chemtrail.
JP8 contains a wide range of metallic additives, including aluminium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur, titanium, iron, tin, and potassium… and trace elements of barium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, niobium, scandium, selenium and vanadium, in amounts magnified by hundred of thousands of commercial flights per day. These elements are added to fuel in nano-particulate form, making them extremely potent. The nano-particles nucleate cirrus clouds — exactly the artificial albedo proposed by scientists like David Keith.
It is claimed in the media that aviation emissions are resulting in ‘accidental’ geo-engineering, but of course all these metals don’t end up in jet fuel by accident. Legislation could and should be passed to end the additives. But consider this: if you wanted to disperse chemicals for the purpose of geo-engineering, what would you do? Obviously one would first look to use the vector of commercial aviation to achieve that aim.
JP8 creates the ambient metals pollution that ionises the troposphere for various military and communications applications including 3D over-the-horizon radar systems. This doesn’t mean that aerosol injection for weather modification is not being carried out through other vectors including unmarked planes, drones and military tankers following flight-paths which are nothing to do with commercial aviation. Then there are sounder-rockets with payloads of chemicals, and even balloon-tethered, kilometres-long ‘sky-hoses’. Ship-based operations using filthy ‘bunker fuels’ are also thought to play a role. Weather modification is a huge industry and rarely seems to be used for constructive purposes but rather as a form of covert warfare against other countries. Thus Iran is currently being hit with drought, the Philippines with storms. It can also used as a form of psychological warfare to make self-fulfilling prophecies of predictions of climate chaos as per anthropogenic global warming theory. Disasters such as floods and storms, precipitated by weather weapons, reinforces the CO2-driven climate change narrative in the public mind. Weather weapons are used to manifest the otherwise unfounded predictions of the UNIPCC. The enemy, as the Club of Rome announced, is humanity itself; the war-aim, to bring the world under a unipolar global power structure. The UN’s Agenda 21 and 30 policy documents describe this centralised system which aspires to manage and control all aspects of human existence. The war on carbon — on photosynthesis, on sunlight — is a war for full-spectrum dominance of humanity.
Forest coverage is greater now than it was 150 years ago. The industrial revolution was powered by coal; burning it released in concentrated form the embedded solar energy in plant-life. Without coal, Northern Europe would quickly have been denuded of trees to feed industrial processes. It was coal that saved the forests.
This is not to say that deforestation is not of intense concern. While deforestation is slowly or even reversing, in terms of total land area, most of the tree canopy loss is seen in primary forest — tropical rainforest and other biologically diverse biomes.
But fossil fuels are anathema to the ‘environmentalists’, and coal-fired electricity generation is being abandoned and suppressed across the Western world. Coal and oil are considered worse than wood, since burning them releases carbon which has been geologically sequestered for millions of years. Thus we arrive at the absurdity of a 3,900
megawatt power plant in Northern England — Drax Power Station, near Leeds in Yorkshire — which has converted from coal to ‘biomass’. This euphemism masks the madness of feeding a modern power station with 70,000 tons of wood per day, and an estimated total of 7.5 million tons annually. To sustain its output, it requires 1,200,000 hectares (12,000 km2) of forest to supply it on a continuous basis. Most of this is imported in processed wood pellets from North America, although some is domestically sourced from willow trees.
Because of the unreliable nature of wind-power generation, wind farms need power plants to support their output — into which more and more ‘biomass’ will be fed as the turbines march across more and more of the landscape. In addition, since solar power and wind are such diffuse sources of energy, requiring the dedication of large areas of land, deforestation is a concomitant of their wholesale adoption.
Is this environmentalism, or a war on trees?
The campaign has been fought so far in suits and ties, but if you want to see grim front-line footage from the war on trees, take a look at images of the great wildfires, the so-called ‘mega-fires’ that have devastated forests in California, Russia, Sweden, Brazil, Angola, Congo, Portugal, Greece, Australia — it’s a global phenomenon, and while brushfire is a natural phase of healthy forests, the extent and intensity of these holocausts over the last ten years and more suggests that something has changed, with the loss of more than a million acres of forest per year for the past decade. As I write, 5 million hectares in Australia are being consumed by firestorms unprecedented in world history, a total area of forest almost equivalent in area to the countries of Belgium and Luxembourg combined, producing a smoke plume as wide as the continent of Europe.
The climate priests and their obedient media tell us that ‘global warming’ is to blame for the fires. But it is not carbon dioxide which desiccates forests and accelerates these firestorms; instead we should look to the actual desiccant and incendiary properties of aluminium, which now saturates our planet in every pore, the water table, the air column, the rain and the snow, the soil and the oceans, and the bodies of every living creature. Aluminium oxide and iron are the ingredients of thermite — the incendiary used to cut steel at 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit — and both are present, in nano-form, in JP8 aviation fuel, as are barium and magnesium, both highly inflammable. Is it any wonder then that these fires burn with such unprecedented intensity? Or that seven out of ten of the most destructive fires in Californian history have happened in the last five years?
California was afflicted by one of its most persistent droughts in its history from 2011-2019. Drought, of course, can be engineered through weather modification. Drought and flood were the earliest weapons in the weather warfare arsenal, as seen in Operation Popeye during the Viet Nam war. During the California droughts there was massive aerosol activity along the West coast on the United States. Was rainfall being deliberately blocked? And why do we not see any effort to use weather modification to bring rain to drought-afflicted areas before the fires break out, or to dampen the flames once they erupt? So we can only suspect complicity, at the very least, in these ‘natural’ disasters; I believe that what we are seeing is nothing short of a war on trees.
The war on trees has human casualties. In Northern California two towns in the Sierra Nevada foothills, Paradise and Concow, were completely destroyed and several others severely damaged in the so-called Camp Fire (named after its origin on Camp Creek Road) which consumed 60,000 hectares of forest and 18,000 buildings in 2018. The official death toll is 85, making it the deadliest in Californian history; there is confusion as to the number of people still unaccounted for. Some were incinerated in their cars on clogged evacuation routes. In the aftermath of the fires, many will not be able to return. 25 million acres of California — home to 25% of the Californian population — have been designated ‘very high’ to ‘extreme’ fire threat areas, which makes it almost impossible to obtain insurance.
In Australia the current drought is exacerbated by flood plain water-harvesting and the construction of dams for private mega-projects; there are bone-dry river beds and creeks across the country which are normally fed by aquifers, not run-off. Meanwhile 43,000 fracking wells across the continent consume up to 16 million gallons of water per well. The government resists calls for more fire-fighters at the same time as criminally selling off water resources to private companies. There is talk of bringing in defence forces to evacuate dangerous areas, including 90 drought-hit towns. Again, high insurance premiums will keep people out, and if not, the soldiers will.
All of this leads to the suspicion that these fires are being used for land-clearance in line with the UN’s rewilding schemes, concentrating human populations in ‘smart’ cities. In both California and South-east Australia the infernos have followed the course of proposed new bullet-train systems. From Paradise we see baffling images of suburbs where all the houses have been consumed while surrounding trees stand unaffected. Many observers are certain that directed energy weapons (DEWs) have been involved in igniting the blazes, explaining how trees can burn from the inside out, and how houses can be consumed by ‘forest fires’ which don’t touch the trees. Earth-watchers observe explosions at the inception of fires, from real-time satellite images. The grim realisation is dawning that these wildfires are not just being facilitated and precipitated by government inaction and incompetence; they are being deliberately prepared, triggered, and intensified, using an extensive arsenal of technologies.
An estimated half a billion (500 million) animals have died in the Australian fires currently raging.
Consider this poignant image of the war on trees: in South-East Australia, as a huge, fast-moving wildfire approaches the city of Sydney, council workers come in behind it with chain-saws and take down any surviving trees.
Why? Because they’re a ‘fire hazard’.
A lone tree in a blackened, devastated landscape where nothing stirs — a fire hazard.
Do you hear mocking laughter?
These workers should be employed in creating fire breaks ahead of the flames, not picking through the ruins finishing off the survivors.
Are you getting it yet, the epiphany?
There is no intergovernmental war on pollution, only a war of pollution.
The carbon-driven ‘climate emergency’ serves as a cover-story, constructed in advance, for the climate chaos and environmental degradation engendered by out-of-control weather modification, weather warfare, and geo-engineering. The poisoning of air, soil and water constitutes is the most urgent emergency we face, presenting an existential threat to the biosphere. Among the most serious consequences of stratospheric aerosol injection is the shredding of the ozone layer, allowing deeper penetration of ultra violet B and C radiation which is killing the plankton in the seas, estimated at a 50% reduction already on normal levels. The assault is on the very roots of the tree of life, and unless it ceases the only result can be a collapse of the food chain, and I for one have no doubt that is the aim.
The climate emergency is camouflage for a covert war on humanity, declared in 1991. Anthropogenic global warming or ‘climate change’ is a mask for the chaos of weather modification and geo-engineering. Carbon is merely the phantom enemy to enable the mobilisation of humanity against itself.
The enemies of carbon portray planet Earth as fragile and sick, humanity as its disease. But this planet, like the carbon atom at the heart of the web of life, is a designed system, imbued with intelligence, and we are part of it. The planet doesn’t need us entombing the gas of life in the ground or erecting screens of toxic particulates in the sky. This is madness, or mockery, a Satanic joke. What we need to do is plant trees and protect primary forest; clean up the oceans and rivers; abandon oil-based plastics and use hemp; unleash Third World development; end poverty and hunger and watch the population stabilise.
Respect the design. Respect habitat, and let all species thrive.
And in time, by all means, move from fossil fuels to more elegant solutions for accessing the energy we need. Liberate the Tesla technology, sequestered in covert military and corporate laboratories for a hundred years. But, if we do, we must remember to keep generating the CO2 that sustains not just the forests but all life. And make the transition humanely, intelligently, on this intelligent planet.
But first, we must fight this war against madness and mockery.
The war on carbon is not to save the environment. The war is against humanity, and to destroy humanity you must destroy its sustenance, and to do that you must attack the ecosystems that sustain it and embrace the risk of collapsing the biosphere itself. Your life science and technology will enable you — you hope — to bring it all back, to your own design and specifications.
Enlist your enemy in its own destruction; have it worship your Satanic inversions.
The war on carbon is a war on life.
And that’s it: the carbon epiphany.
Note: my epiphany was induced by listening to scientists like Dr Richard Lindzen, Professor of Atmospheric Physics at MIT; Dr William Happer, physicist, Princeton professor, formerly Director of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy, chairman of the steering committee for the JASON advisory group, and Chairman of the Marshall Institute 2006-2015; Dr Ivar Giaever, physicist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics 1973, Professor Emeritus at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, director of the company Applied Biophysics; Dr Ian Plimar, geologist, professor emeritus of earth sciences at the University of Melbourne; Dr Patrick Moore, founder member and former president of the Greenpeace Foundation; Dr Ian Clarke, paleo-climatologist, professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at Ottawa University; Dr John Christy, Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Science and Director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, recipient of NASA’s Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement, and the American Meteorological Society’s Special Award, for his work developing global temperature data sets from satellites; Dr Nir Shaviv, Professor of Physics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Dr Henrik Svensmark, Professor of Physics in the Division of Solar System Physics, Danish National Space Institute; Dr Freeman Dyson, Professor Emeritus at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study; Dr Timothy Ball, professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Winnipeg from 1971 until his retirement in 1996; Dr Robert Carter, palaeontologist, stratigrapher and marine geologist, professor and head of the School of Earth Sciences at James Cook University in Australia from 1981 to 1998; and others.